Parasites in the human body symptoms photo

abdominal pain with parasites

The types of worms that infect a person's internal organs are called helminths. According to statistics, today about 30% of the entire population is susceptible to helminth infestation. Worms that poison the body can infect any part of the body. This is dangerous not only for diseases that can provoke helminths. Their presence in the body can be fatal.

To date, helminthiasis can be completely cured not only with drugs but also with folk remedies. Each type has its own methods of treatment. That is why it is worth knowing and understanding what are the types of worms, as well as the symptoms of parasitic infection, in order to take timely measures.

Classification of helminthiasis

Parasitic worms are divided into two major groups: intestinal and tissue.

The first species lives directly in the intestine. This group includes:

  • roundworms and pinworms;
  • hookworms and worms;
  • bull and dwarf tapeworms;
  • beef tapeworm and tapeworm;
  • swine tapeworm.

Tissue worms can inhabit any organ of the human body and parasitize for many years. They include:

  • cysticerci and trematodes;
  • Trichinella and hepatic methyl;
  • echinococci and alveococci.


They are the most common and difficult types of worms that live in the small intestine of an adult or child. Infection with this type of helminth is called ascariasis.

what roundworms look like

In the first days of the invasion, a person begins to feel malaise, nervousness, fever, shortness of breath, cough and chest pain. Such symptoms are justified by the fact that helminths initially affect the respiratory system.

Infection can be caused by drinking raw water from untested sources, poorly processed fresh fruits and vegetables. In summer, the risk of ascariasis is increased.


The small helminths that settle in the gut cause a disease called enterobiosis. The worms lay their eggs in the anal area. The laid eggs turn into larvae and can penetrate the body again only through the oral cavity.

what the spikes look like in the human body

Re-infection occurs due to the contact of the dirty hands of a person suffering from enterobiosis with the food he eats. Symptoms of infection may include itching around the anus and increased irritability.

Important! The disease is transmitted by humans.


Infection with hookworm infection occurs through damaged skin in contact with the ground where the larvae of these species of worms live.

what hookworms look like in the human body

Hookworms, before entering the intestine, follow the same path as roundworms.

Symptoms include cough, lower abdominal pain, nausea and stool disorders. This type of helminthiasis can cause anemia.


Giardiasis progresses in people who have a habit of biting nails and other objects (pencils, pens). Infection can also occur in the case of drinking poor quality water, unwashed products, contact with dirty laundry, where the larvae may be, and a carrier of the disease.

what the lamblia looks like in the human body

Symptoms of infection may include loose stools and lower abdominal pain.


Trichocephalus occurs during infection with whip larvae. They go inside along with unprocessed fruits and vegetables. Dirty hands and water are also vectors.

what the whips look like in the human body

The invasion is accompanied by acute abdominal pain, diarrhea and decreased appetite. The signs of infection are often similar to those of appendicitis.

Dwarf tapeworm

Infection with the worm occurs not only through dirty hands and unwashed food, but also insects can be carriers.

Dwarf tapeworm affects the intestines and liver, causing inflammation and poisoning.

what does dwarf tapeworm look like in the human body

Hymenolepiasis may be accompanied by dysbiosis, loss of appetite, increased thirst, increased fatigue and nervousness.

Beef tapeworm

One of the most dangerous types of worms that parasitize the colon.

what cattle tapeworm looks like in the human body

An adult worm reaches several meters in length. The individual takes all the nutrients from the human body and causes severe intoxication.

The symptoms of the invasion are:

  • diarrhea and abdominal pain;
  • vomiting and nausea;
  • troubled sleep;
  • dizziness and fainting.

The risk of tapeworm disease arises from eating undercooked beef infected with tapeworm larvae.

Wide ribbon

The cause of diphyllobotriasis is the consumption of poorly processed fish products and caviar.

The worm that causes the disease is one of the largest and can reach ten meters.

what the broad tapeworm looks like in the human body

Symptoms of the infection are severe lower abdominal pain and anemia.

Pork tapeworm

Infection with this type of helminth is extremely dangerous for humans. Eating pork that is not cooked enough can cause Finns to enter the body and become adults.

what does porcine tapeworm look like in the human body

From the body of the porcine tapeworm are periodically separated the so-called segments, which are able to leave the body on their own through the anus or with feces, entering the environment. The symptoms of tapeworm are similar to those of bovine tapeworm infection.


This is a type of tissue worm that is the product of a segment of porcine tapeworm. The segments containing tapeworm eggs enter the external environment and can re-enter the body through external environmental objects and provoke the development of cysticercosis.

what does the liver fluke look like in the human body

Parasites inhabit the muscles, myocardium and even the brain.

Important! They have a depressing effect on the organs and cause inflammation.

Liver fluke

Opisthorchiasis occurs as a result of ingestion of liver fluke larvae along with infected fish in the human body.

what the cysticercus looks like in the human body

Signs of opisthorchiasis:

  • nausea;
  • diarrhea;
  • pain all over the body;
  • the appearance of allergies.

More serious symptoms are chronic. This type of parasite is dangerous for the development of liver cancer.


The worm settles in the body, most often in the liver or lungs. Echinococcus can cause the formation of a cyst in the affected organ and the appearance of tumors. The infection can be fatal.

what echinococcus looks like in the human body

The larvae are transmitted to humans through contact with sick animals.


Trichinosis mainly affects people who eat poorly processed wild meat. Pigs can also be carriers of Trichinella.

what Trichinella looks like in the human body

The habitats of adults in the human body are different types of muscles (respiratory, facial, etc. ).

Nausea and loose stools appear at an early stage. Subsequent symptoms of the invasion are fever, edema, skin rash, muscle aches. Infection with this type of parasite without timely treatment can be fatal.

severe abdominal pain with parasites

Ways to infect humans with helminths

  1. Biohelminthosis (infection from animals).
  2. Infectious helminthiasis (transmitted from person to person).
  3. Geohelminthosis (diseases caused by parasites that carry out one of their life cycles in the earth).

Factors influencing the manifestations of helminthiasis

roundworm in the human intestine

The way the parasite enters the body;

  • The degree of adaptation of the helminth to the human body;
  • Population density (number) of parasitic individuals;
  • The worm's habitat (tissue parasites live in the thickness of soft tissues, and luminal - in the gaps of hollow organs). Some helminths in different phases have both luminal and tissue form. The larval and developing stages of worms, as a rule, cause more pronounced pathological changes.

In the absence of re-infection, the number of adult parasites in the human body does not increase. This feature significantly distinguishes helminth infestations from diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa.

Worms in humans: symptoms

Helminthiasis is a disease characterized by 2 stages (acute, from two weeks to two months) and chronic (from several months to several years).

Symptoms of the acute phase of helminthiasis

The first signs of the disease may appear at different times (most often after 2-3 weeks, in ascariasis - after 2-3 days, and in filariasis, the incubation period can last 6-18 months).

In the acute stage of parasitic invasion, the most characteristic symptom is an allergic reaction (antibodies are produced to the antigens of migrating larvae of parasites). Often in people infected with worms, itchy skin rashes appear, prone to recurrence, enlarged regional lymph nodes, generalized or local edema, muscle and joint pain may occur. Also, migrating larvae of parasites can cause chest pain, cough, choking attacks, stool disorders, nausea and vomiting.

Signs of chronic helminthiasis

The symptoms of the chronic phase directly depend on which organ is "inhabited" by parasites, and also their size and number play an important role.

signs of parasites in the body

So, when it parasitizes in the intestines of individuals, the disease can be asymptomatic (except in cases of infection with very large parasites). The characteristic signs of the chronic phase of intestinal helminthiasis are dyspeptic disorders. In children, asthenoneurotic and pain syndromes are more pronounced. With massive invasion of roundworms, the development of intestinal obstruction, obstructive jaundice and pancreatitis is possible.

In people suffering from helminthiasis, due to a weakened immune system and increased cell division (a consequence of the constant repair of tissues damaged by parasites), the risk of malignant tumors increases significantly.

Types of helminths parasitizing in the human body

The causes of human helminthiasis are 2 types of worms: roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (tapeworms and flukes).



pinworms in the human body

The parasites that cause enterobiosis are small (up to 10 mm) thin cavities of worms with a grayish-white color. The infection becomes alimentary (oral). The reason for this is dirty hands. The eggs of the parasite can be found in the ground, on the wool of infected animals, unwashed vegetables and fruits and more. At the same time, enterobiosis is a common case of self-infection (especially in children) as a result of scratching the itchy areas and subsequent ingestion of eggs. The pinworm larva develops within two weeks in the digestive tract. Once an adult, the worm parasitizes the lower parts of the small and upper parts of the colon.


Ascaris in the human body

Ascaris is a large spindle-shaped parasite with a red-yellow color, reaching 40 cm (female) and 15-25 cm (male) in adulthood. Without suction cups or other fasteners, the roundworm can move independently to food masses. The eggs laid by the female of the parasite are excreted together with the faeces.


Vlasoglav, the cause of trichocephaly, is a white helminth, parasitizing in the initial part of the colon and reaching a size of 4-5 cm. The parasite feeds on blood and tissues of the rectal mucosa.

In a small number of worms, trichocephaly is asymptomatic. In the severe stage (with massive invasion) the patient develops abdominal pain, severe diarrhea develops, sometimes accompanied by rectal prolapse. This condition is most common in exhausted children. In the moderate phase of trichocephaly, growth retardation of the child is possible.


Trichinella in the body

The cause of trichinosis is a small round helminth, reaching 2-5 mm in length. Infection occurs when eating poorly roasted meat (pork, bear meat, wild boar). Penetrating into the intestine, the larva of the parasite matures in 3-4 days to the state of a sexually mature individual. The lifespan of the worm is 40 days, after which the parasite dies. By piercing the intestinal wall, the larvae enter the bloodstream and are transmitted to all organs of the human body, settling in the muscles. In this case, the respiratory and facial muscles, as well as the flexor muscles of the limbs are most often affected.

In the first days after the invasion, patients complain of abdominal pain. Then, after about 2 weeks, the body temperature rises to 39-40 C, itchy rashes appear on the skin, muscle pain develops and the face swells. During this period, in case of a massive infection, there is a significant risk of death. After about a month, the patient recovers. The parasite encapsulates in a spiral shape and then dies within two years.

Hookworm and some

These two parasites are similar in biological characteristics as well as in caused diseases. In this regard, it is common to combine under a common name (hookworms). Worms, reaching lengths of 10-15 mm, parasitize in 12-p. intestine. It should be noted that this is one of the most common, but at the same time quite rare parasites. Worm larvae penetrate the human body through the skin in contact with contaminated soil. In addition, entering the bloodstream, they migrate like roundworms into the lungs and then, through the bronchi, along with sputum expectorant, into the digestive tract. The hookworm parasitizes in the intestine, attaching to the intestinal wall. Therefore, the most characteristic symptom of this helminthiasis is iron deficiency anemia, as well as a change in the ratio of protein fractions (dysproteinemia).


Wide ribbon

This is one of the largest helminths, reaching a length of 10-20 meters. The disease caused by this parasite is called diphyllobotriasis. The development cycle of the worm begins with freshwater fish or crustaceans. The larva enters the human body, which is the ultimate owner of the broad tapeworm, along with eggs or infected fish fillets. Reaching the small intestine, the parasite attaches to its wall and grows to a mature individual within 20-25 days.

Diphyllobotriasis occurs against the background of disorders of the digestive tract and B12-deficiency anemia.

Liver fluke

The parasite that causes opisthorchiasis is a flatworm, reaching a length of 7-20 mm. Human infection occurs when eating contaminated fish meat that has not undergone sufficient heat treatment. The larva of the hepatic flux from the small intestine penetrates the bile ducts and the gallbladder, and is fixed there with the help of two suction cups.

In the acute phase of helminthiasis, the patient has pain in the upper abdomen, fever, nausea, muscle aches, diarrhea and skin rashes. The chronic course of opisthorchiasis is manifested by symptoms of hepatitis, inflammation of the bile ducts, cholecystitis, disorders of the digestive tract, nervous disorders, weakness and increased fatigue. The parasite leads to the development of irreversible changes and even after its expulsion the patient does not suffer from chronic inflammatory processes and functional disorders.

Beef and swine tapeworm

These parasites, almost identical in structure, reach a length of 5-6 meters. Infection with teniarinosis and teniasis occurs due to the consumption of beef or pork infected by Finns (one of the intermediate forms of helminthiasis). Viable Finns, presented in the form of whitish bubbles, reaching a size of 0, 5 cm, attach to the wall of the small intestine of man and become an adult in 3 months. The tapeworm, consisting of more than 2, 000 segments, is constantly growing.


echinococcus in humans

For this parasite, man is an intermediate host. The worm parasitizes on the human body in the form of Finns. The ultimate owner of an echinococcus is a wolf, dog or cat. Infection occurs through food through contact with animals and environmental objects seeded with echinococcus eggs. After entering the intestine, oncospheres (six-attached larvae) develop from them. From the intestines they enter the blood and are transmitted to the body.


This parasite, considered a type of echinococcus, is the cause of one of the most dangerous helminthiasis (alveococcosis), which is similar in severity to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Infection occurs when oncospheres (eggs with mature larvae) enter the intestine. Laurocysts are very aggressive formations that are constantly growing due to the enlargement of the bubbles, and also have the ability to grow in the liver, as cancer metastases. Necrotic changes due to dysfunction of blood vessels undergo necrotic changes in nearby tissues. Spreading to nearby structures, the alveococcus forms fibrous nodules with inclusions of multichambered vesicles. This condition can last for several years and therefore requires mandatory surgery.

Diagnosis of helminthiasis

Diagnosis of helminth infestations includes the following activities:

  • careful history taking to help identify possible causes of infection;
  • laboratory tests of stool, blood, intestinal contents 12p, rectal and perianal mucus, muscle tissue, pulmonary sputum, bile. The analysis may reveal eggs, segments or fragments of parasites. At the same time, the increased content of eosinophils in the blood is also a signal of the presence of helminthiasis.
  • when diagnosing diseases caused by larval stages or tissue parasites, serological tests are performed (ELISA, RSK, indirect agglutination test, immunofluorescence analysis, etc. ).
  • Ultrasound, CT and endoscopic examinations are prescribed to identify worms that affect the liver tissue.

Worms in humans: treatment

In the acute phase of parasitic infection, the patient is prescribed therapy for detoxification and desensitization. In severe cases of the disease (liver trematodes, trichinosis) glucocorticoids are used according to medical indications.

Special anthelmintic chemotherapeutic agents are prescribed as drugs of specific therapy, taking into account the nature of the pathogen.

In parallel, the patient is advised to take antihistamines and enterosorbents. The last stage of treatment involves the use of probiotics, which normalize the intestinal microflora.

A special gentle diet is also prescribed (food must be digestible and low in fat).

During anthelmintic therapy, the patient must strictly observe personal hygiene (to avoid re-infection). At the same time, for many helminthiases, all family members and people who are in constant contact with the infected must be treated.

Underestimating their danger, combined with a lack of awareness of the biology of these creatures and ways to infect them, has led to the fact that at least several billion people are now carriers of certain parasites.

Parasites can also be present not only in humans but even outside the human body.

Prevention of parasite infestation

Rule №1:you cannot eat anything from fish that is not sufficiently salted, fried or cooked. Sushi, lightly salted herring or sashimi can be considered gourmet food. But in essence it is raw fish, and fish is one of the components of the life cycle of parasitic worms.

How it all happens:first the larva enters the mollusk, where it does not grow more than a certain limit, then the fish eats the mollusk, the larva enters the digestive tract, remaining alive, then it grows and multiplies, falling into the muscle tissue of the fish, then this fish is eaten by a dolphin, seagull or polar bear. Or a visitor to a restaurant who decides to join the high Japanese culture.

In theory, there is safe raw fish. For this purpose, it must either be frozen immediately after catching and thawed immediately before cooking, or it must be specially reared on a fish farm with control of the absence of parasites. But it is usually impossible to check whether a risky dish has really been prepared from it.

The same care must be taken with meat; do not try raw minced meat and freshly salted bacon.

In addition, in order not to become infected with helminths, vegetables should be washed before eating, as well as hands. As a component of the natural environment, these parasites are widespread in the human body almost everywhere.

Any contact of food or hands with the ground, dust and vegetation can leave their microscopic eggs on the food. If they enter the intestines, the eggs will hatch worms, which will not be easy to remove.

There are parasites that attack a person who walks or relaxes in nature, for example:

  • Plasmodium falciparum contained in the saliva of mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles,
  • the causative agent of encephalitis contained in the saliva of ixodic ticks,
  • fly and wolf fly.

Their prevention consists in the use of all kinds of repellents in wildlife tourism, as well as in the maximum protection of the exposed areas of the body (mosquito nets, nets, special gel).

But what can you do if prevention hasn't helped? Since the attack has been known for a long time, treatment with folk methods has also been known for a long time.

In conclusion, it can be noted that following simple rules of hygiene and sanitation, the destruction of flies and cockroaches can significantly reduce the risk of infection with parasites, which can lead to serious consequences.