The symptoms of a worm infection are different. For example, the most common are dyspeptic disorders - nausea, vomiting, pain and bloating. Some patients do not pay attention to the symptoms until they develop a rash that cannot be eliminated with conventional medications. Helminth infestation is often accompanied by symptoms similar to other diseases and allergies. Therefore, timely diagnosis is needed.
Worm infection in humans
Most helminths are spread in the human body through the consumption of unwashed fruits and vegetables. After spreading in the body, organ damage occurs, which causes serious diseases. Pathologies of the liver, kidneys, heart, digestive tract, gallbladder, and even oncology can develop.
A common characteristic symptom is skin irritation, rash. But a person may not pay attention to this for years while the pathology develops, although it is enough to take anthelmintic drugs in a course to fully recover.
Methods of infection
There are 4 methods by which worms spread in the human body:
- Geohelminthosis. The parasite enters through the soil, which remains on unwashed fruits and vegetables and spreads in the water. Infection is also possible with poor hand washing after working with the ground. Contact with the ground is often observed in animals that enter the house with dirty paws. Eggs, larvae and adults can enter the human body.
- Contact. In the body of the host the female lays 4-5 thousand eggs in 1 day. They can be spread from an infected person to other people after contact, especially at home. Eggs or adults are spread through bed linen, towels, personal hygiene items. It is enough for an infected person not to wash his hands. Most often this path is characteristic of pinworms, worms.
- Biohelminthiasis. Parasites are stored in the bodies of living and dead animals, fish. Subsequently, one can eat them. In case of insufficient heat treatment, preservation of parasites is observed.
- Insect bites. In this way, helminth eggs of the smallest size are transmitted.
Of all the forms of helminths, the infection most often occurs when eggs and larvae are ingested. They can be found in soil, water, on an infected person, in raw meat. It is important not only to wash food and hands, but also to always use heat treatment of food.
Symptoms of helminthiasis
Symptoms of infection vary depending on the stage of the disease.The following symptoms are most common:
- weight loss, weight loss;
- pale skin;
- itching in the anus.
The symptoms are similar to other pathologies, so the patient may use the wrong methods of therapy. Symptoms may vary depending on the area of the body affected. For example, when the liver is damaged, yellowing of the skin occurs.
With the penetration of pathogens into the digestive tract, the following symptoms develop:
- violation of the formation of fecal masses (constipation, diarrhea);
- itching in the anus;
- dyspeptic disorders - nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, heartburn;
- colic in the intestine;
- flatulence accompanied by swelling;
- periodic change in body weight from greater to lesser degree.
In the early stages, the symptoms are almost invisible. The more the worms damage the internal organs, the more actively the symptoms develop. Some parasites are able to excrete waste products that are foreign to the body. This leads to severe intoxication and diarrhea. Large worms spread in the intestines, preventing the passage of feces. This causes constipation.
Due to the separation of waste products from worms, a person is subjected to severe intoxication. That is why weakness, malaise, dyspeptic disorders develop.
When a person consumes food, nutrients enter the body and are distributed to the tissues.The helminths eat them, so the patient develops the following abnormalities:
- metabolic disease;
- suppression of the immune system.
One often begins to get sick from viral, active, fungal diseases. Even with the use of multivitamins, hypovitaminosis will not be eliminated until anthelmintic treatment is completed.
Some types of helminths are able to damage the peripheral tissues of the nervous system by crossing the blood-brain barrier. These properties are possessed by the products of their intoxication.Damage to the nervous system causes the following symptoms:
- constant forgetfulness, bad memory;
- migraine headache;
- stress, neurosis, depression;
- increased fatigue.
The patient's behavior changes. He comes into conflict with the people around him, forgets his acquaintances. Gradually the symptoms complement each other, the body temperature rises by more than 39 degrees.
Chronic hypovitaminosis leads to chronic fatigue syndrome. Gradually the level of red blood cells decreases, leading to anemia. The person becomes irritable and aggressive.
Even in the early stages, damage to the deepest parts of the airways can develop.The following pathologies develop:
- tracheitis, bronchitis;
- emphysema, bronchial asthma, pneumonia.
A sign of helminth infestation can be even frequent rhinitis and pharyngitis.
In order for the epidermis to develop normally, a sufficient amount of vitamins, microelements and minerals is needed. Worm infestation leads to hypovitaminosis, so the quality of the skin suffers.The following deviations occur:
- acne, acne, rash;
- itching, scaling, redness of the epidermis;
- exfoliation of the nail plate.
Even the most severe skin pathologies can develop:
- urticaria, dermatitis;
- papilloma, seborrhea;
- alergic reaction.
The doctor and the patient may not immediately understand why drugs do not help with these pathologies. The quality of the skin deteriorates significantly, it becomes pale, wrinkles appear. Turgor decreases, ie the surface tension.
Signs of infection depending on the type of helminths
The severity of the symptoms depends on the following factors:
- the number of parasites in the body;
- degree of immune activity;
- localization of parasites;
- type of parasite.
Some helminths can stay in the host for a long time without causing any negative symptoms. Other people are able to instantly deteriorate their health, damage the liver. For example, roundworms.
Roundworms damage many internal organs, causing certain symptoms similar to other diseases.The following symptoms may occur:
- prolonged cough;
- severe fatigue;
- bronchitis pneumonia.
First, the digestive tract is damaged, therefore hypovitaminosis and metabolic disorders are formed. The human body is exhausted.Gradually, signs of damage to the gastrointestinal tract:
- yellowing of the skin;
- intestinal obstruction.
With the spread of worms across the blood-brain barrier, severe headaches, migraines and depression appear.
schistosomiasis, trichuriase, hookworm, diphyllobotriasis
The parasites cause the following deviations:
- lack of nutrients and vitamins;
- decreased metabolism, which leads to a change in body weight;
- intestinal dysbiosis.
Gradually, hypovitaminosis turns into beriberi, which leads to significant depletion of the body. A person's skin turns pale and can often faint, which is typical of anemia.
Pinworms are characterized by the laying of eggs in the anus, usually this process occurs at night. Therefore, a person is worried about severe itching in the anus. The disease is characterized by periodic remission, so sometimes the itching stops. If left untreated, the helminth infestation becomes extensive, so the itching worries the patient at any time of the day.
The parasite penetrates into every part of the body, producing large amounts of toxins. This leads to constant spasm, cramps, muscle aches. Swelling occurs due to damage to the cardiovascular system. In severe intoxication, body temperature rises.
Fascioliasis, opisthorchiasis, clonorchiasis
This is one of the most dangerous helminths, leading to the following lesions:
- liver problems with the development of jaundice;
- intestinal obstruction, dyspeptic disorders in the gastrointestinal tract.
Gradually the patient develops hepatosplenomegaly.
The parasites are actively spreading through the genitourinary system. Due to the chronic inflammatory process, damage to the mucous membranes occurs. Therefore, when urinating, a person finds red urine, which indicates the development of foci of bleeding.
In the human body, helminths can damage different types of organs:
- scalp - large intestine;
- roundworms, tapeworms, hookworms - small intestines;
- roundworms - liver.
Depending on the damaged organs, different symptoms develop:
- liver - jaundice, pain in the right hypochondrium, hepatitis;
- respiratory tract - trachea, bronchitis, pneumonia;
- brain - convulsions, paresthesia, seizures.
It is necessary to simultaneously treat the disease (hepatitis, colitis), eliminate helminths.
Scientists are counting a huge number of parasites found in the human body. In total there are over 100 of them.But more often doctors distinguish the infection with the following parasites:
- dwarf tapeworm;
In order to determine the exact type of pathogen and prescribe the correct treatment, it is necessary to conduct laboratory and instrumental diagnostics. First, the patient is examined by a therapist, then gives stool for a coprogram, detecting worm eggs. Usually therapists and infectious disease specialists recommend testing twice, as even in the presence of infection, eggs and larvae may not be detected.
Laboratory blood test is recommended for patients at risk:
- the presence of pets;
- work related to animals;
- medical workers;
- employees of children's educational institutions;
- food workers.
Attention! To accurately identify helminths and their products of intoxication, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are recommended. It is performed in municipal clinics and hospitals, as well as in private laboratories.
It is forbidden to choose helminth medications on your own, as they have a strong effect on the condition of the liver and kidneys. It is recommended to undergo an initial examination, after which specific drugs are prescribed. The dosage is chosen depending on the health condition, age, body weight of the person.
The following methods of drug administration are selected:
- tablets - mild or moderate helminthiasis;
- injections, infusions - severe disease, the formation of excessive numbers of parasites, severe damage to the digestive tract.
Many drugs can only work in adults. If there is a risk of eggs and larvae, it is better to undergo a second course of therapy or choose a more powerful tool.
The table shows the optimal drugs for treatment.
|mebendazole||Completely kills pinworms, hookworms, whips, tapeworms and other parasites|
|Pyrantella pamoate||The substance destroys roundworms, effective in enterobiosis and necatorosis|
|Levamisole hydrochloride||Destroys roundworms and hookworms|
|Pirvinia embonate||Helps to completely cure enterobiosis|
|Albendazole||Helps destroy most elements in the adult or larval stage.|
It is initially recommended to identify the exact pathogen, only then to administer the drug. This will increase the chances of recovery without a negative effect on the body.
Methods of prevention
To prevent parasites from entering the body, use the rules of prevention:
- hand washing after harvesting, throughout the day, after contact with animals;
- use of personal hygiene items, utensils by one person only;
- taking multivitamins, giving up bad habits to strengthen the immune system;
- thorough washing of fruits and vegetables, heat treatment of meat and fish;
- the use of high quality drinking water from proven sources.
Helminths can be found in many products, so it is impossible to rule out the risk of their spread in the body. Anyone can be infected with the parasite without even knowing it. It can be spread from one family member to another through contact with the household. It is therefore necessary to apply preventive measures on a daily basis.
It is important to take good care of the animals. It is required to wash periodically, to give drugs against parasites to reduce the risk of helminth infection.
If a person suspects that he is accused of helminths, it is better to do a laboratory test in a timely manner. Repeat twice to avoid a false negative test. Self-medication is prohibited. They are all powerful, negatively affecting the liver. Only a doctor will be able to choose the optimal anthelmintic with the right dose. If timely treatment is carried out, it is possible to prevent the development of serious diseases, immunodeficiency.